Possible use of bioimpedance technology proposed for diagnosis of diabetes instead of blood glucose test
KIOM publishes clinical research results on the possibility of noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes
Possible glucose-independent indicators found using bioimpedence technology
Published on 「Scientific Reports」, an online journal from the publishers of 「Nature」
A noninvasive way for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus independent of blood glucose levels using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology has been discovered.
※ The bioelectrical impedance analysis, or bioimpedance analysis, is a key technology for analyzing body composition by measuring electrical impedance, which is the extended concept of electrical resistance, by passing low AC frequencies through body.
KIOM verified, through a clinical study on diabetic patients, that phase angle (PA) data, a type of bioimpedance indicators, showed statistically significant difference between diabetic subjects and control subjects independent of the glucose levels, and suggested the possibility of its use for the diagnosis of the disease.
The study showed the possibility of diagnosing diabetes through an easy, quick and noninvasive method, and a paper on its results was published on 「Scientific Reports」, an online international journal from the publishers of 「Nature」, in January.
Click to read the paper -> Glucose-independent segmental phase angles from multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis to discriminate diabetes mellitus
The method of diagnosing diabetes commonly being used at present is the oral glucose tolerance test, under which blood glucose level is measured to determine the normalcy of glycometabolism, after oral dosage of a certain amount of glucose and through the collection of four or five blood samples at regular intervals for two to three hours.
The research team conducted the study using bioimpedance analysis in an effort to find an easy and noninvasive way to diagnose diabetes without blood collection, which causes pain to patients.
There have been attempts to differentiate diabetic patients and normal persons using bioimpedance before, but this is the first study which confirmed values obtained through bioimpedance analysis as possible indicators of diabetic diagnosis independent of changes in glucose levels and uninfluenced by food, glucose tolerance, etc.
The research team recruited 90 subjects (45 diabetic subjects and 45 normal control subjects) in consideration of their ages, genders and BMI as part of its collaborative study with Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University. Measurements of blood glucose levels and bioimpedance values were made on the subjects before taking food and then at 30 minute intervals for two hours after the meal.
The measurement results showed that glucose levels rapidly increased both in the diabetic subjects and control subjects right after the meal and dropped as time passed, with diabetic patients showing greater variation. On the other hand, the PA data appeared to change little in both the diabetic and control groups before and after the meal, with lower values occurring for diabetic subjects than control subjects.
Notably, the measurement results of segmental PAs at different body parts (right arm, RA; left arm, LA; right leg, RL; left leg, LL; and trunk, TR) showed the most significant statistical differences in the average segmental PAs for male left arm (diabetic subjects, 5.52°± 0.59°; and control subjects, 6.27°± 1.52°) and the average segmental PAs for female right leg (diabetic subjects, 3.28°± 0.58°; and control subjects, 4.00°± 0.62°) at 250 kHz.
Meanwhile, the results of the analysis of the correlation between the measurement data on segmental PAs of bioimpedance and well-known existing indicators for the diagnosis of diabetes, including blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c level), and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), showed a low correlation and confirmed it to be diagnosis indicator different from existing ones.
The research team commented that PAs are highly likely to be used as new indicators for screening diabetes through additional clinical research and development of diagnosis algorithms, and it plans to continue its research on fast and noninvasive diagnosis of various diseases and conditions such as aging.
Dr. KIM Jaeuk, Director of KIOM’s KM Fundamental Research Division who led the study, remarked on the importance of the research results, saying, “The outcome of the research suggested the possibility of diagnosing diabetes with a noninvasive method based on bioimpedance. The bioimpedance technology is a diagnosis and monitoring technology in Korean medicine closely related to daily life, which has the potential to create new value.”